Introduction to Information Systems
|A. Students' presentations. and Quiz( 30 minutes)|
|B. Team effort and careful planning|
The systems development team consists of stockholders, users, managers, systems development specialists, and various support personnel. The development team is responsible for determining the objectives of the information and delivering to the organization a system that meets its objectives.
Stockholders are individuals who, either themselves or through the area of the organization they represent, ultimately benefit from the systems development project. Users are the employees, managers, customers, or suppliers who will interact with the system regularly. Managers on development teams typically represent stakeholders or may be stakeholders themselves. In addition, managers are most capable of initiating and maintaining change.
A system analysisa professional who specialized in analyzing and designing business systems. The programmer is responsible for modifying or developing programs to satisfy user requirements. Other support personnel on the development team include technical specialists, either IS department employees or outside consultants. Depending on the magnitude of IS systems development specialists on the team, the team may also include one or more IS mangers.
Information systems planning refers to the translation of strategic and organizational goals into systems development initiatives. Benefits of IS planning include a long-range view of information technology use and better use of information systems resources. Planning requires developing overall IS objectives; identifying IS projects; setting priorities and selecting projects; analyzing resource requirements; setting schedules, milestones, and deadlines; and developing the IS planning document.
|C. Predetermined methodology to select, implement, and monitor projects.|
The five phases of the traditional SDLC are investigation, analysis, design, implementation, and maintenance and review. Systems investigation involves identifying potential problems and opportunities and considering them in light of organizational goals. Systems analysis seeks a general understanding of the solution required to solve the problem; the existing system is studied in detail and weaknesses are identified system requirements. Systems implementation encompasses programming, testing, training, conversion, and operation of the system. Systems maintenance and review entails monitoring the system and performing enhancements or repairs.
Prototyping is an interactive approach that involves defining the problem, building the initial version, having users utilize and evaluate the initial version, providing feedback, and incorporating suggestions into the second version. Prototypes can be fully operational or non operational, depending on how critical the system under development is and how much time and monkey the organization has to spend on prototyping.
Rapid application development (RAD) uses tools and techniques designed to speed application. Its use reduces paper-based documentation, automates program source code generation, and facilitates user participation in development activities. RAD makes extensive use of the joint application development (JAD) process to gather data and perform requirements analysis. JAD involves group meeting in which user, stakeholders, and IS professionals work together to analyze existing systems, propose possible solutions, and define the requirements for a new or modified system.
End-user systems development supports projects where the primary effort is undertaken by a combination of business managers and users. End-user systems development is becoming increasingly important as more users develop systems for their personal computers.
|D. System investigation and analysis|
In most organization, a systems request form initiates the investigation process. The systems investigation is designed to assess the feasibility of implementing solutions for business problems. An investigation team follows up on the request and performs a feasibility analysis that addresses technical, economic, operational, schedule, and legal feasibility. As a final step in the investigation process, a systems investigation report should be prepared to document relevant findings.
If the project under investigation is feasible, major gals are set for the system's development, including performance, cost, managerial goals, and procedural goals. A systems development methodology must be selected. As a final step in the investigation process, a systems investigation report should be prepared to document relevant findings.
Systems analysis is the examination of existing systems, which begins once approval for further study is received form management. Additional study of a selected system allows those involved to further understand the systems' weaknesses and potential improvement areas. An analysis team is assembled to collect and analyze data on the existing system.
Data collection methods include observation, interviews, and questionnaires. Data analysis manipulate the collected data to provide information. The overall purpose of requirements analysis is to determine user and organizational needs.